In evidenza

From start-up to scale: This is how governments can accelerate innovation and build inclusive economies (WEF)

Innovation is at the heart of economic growth and job creation. It can transform productivity and efficiency and address many of the world’s longstanding and emerging challenges, such as climate change, health, education and social inclusiveness.

 – Senior Writer, Formative Content

In evidenza

Corporate Tax, Digitalization and Globalization (WEF)

Digitalization enables companies to interact with users and the economy of a country without establishing a physical presence there. Unique, intangible assets make it difficult to apply the arm’s length principle in determining how to value transactions between related entities in different countries. Tax competition among countries and remaining opportunities for profit shifting to low tax jurisdictions have raised concerns.

As countries seek to reform international corporate tax rules to address these issues, this paper supports informed debate among non-experts. It has been produced with the input of a diverse group of individuals representing governments, corporations, civil society organizations, and academia.


In evidenza

Press conference by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg following the meeting of the North Atlantic Council at the level of Heads of State and/or Government (NATO)

Good afternoon.

We have just had a good and important discussion with the Leaders of the NATO Allied countries. We have marked the anniversary of our Alliance. Which has guaranteed peace and security for all Allies for seventy years.  And we have looked to the future. Our meeting has once again demonstrated that NATO remains the only place where Europe and North America discuss, decide and act every day together.  On strategic issues that concern our shared security.

In evidenza

Tehran Might Be Preparing to Withdraw from the 2015 Nuclear Agreement (BESA Center)

Iranian president Hassan Rouhani’s recent announcement of the renewal of uranium enrichment at the Fordow fuel enrichment plant, as well as high-level Iranian gloating about recent progress in the development and operation of uranium enrichment centrifuges, may indicate that Tehran intends to withdraw from the 2015 nuclear agreement and effect a breakout toward nuclear weapons production in 2020.


In evidenza

Can Iran Outlast Trump? (Project-Syndicate)

Rather than attempting to beat Iran into submission with escalating economic sanctions, the international community should be attempting to guide it toward greater openness. Such an approach would improve the prospects of successful negotiations with the West, both before and after the 2020 US presidential election.

Djavad Salehi-Isfahani is Professor of Economics at Virginia Tech, Senior Fellow for Global Economy and Development at the Brookings Institution, and a research fellow at the Economic Research Forum (ERF) in Cairo

In evidenza

Macron Alone (Project-Syndicate)

Since taking office in 2017, French President Emmanuel Macron has cultivated an image as a champion of the European Union at a time of shifting global power balances and resurgent populism. But his latest diplomatic efforts risk alienating Germany and other key EU players.

Sławomir Sierakowski, founder of the Krytyka Polityczna movement, is Director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Warsaw and Senior Fellow at the German Council on Foreign Relations

In evidenza

China’s Quest for Legitimacy (Project-Syndicate)

The conventional Western view is that China faces the alternatives of integrating with the West, trying to destroy it, or succumbing to domestic violence and chaos. But the Chinese scholar Lanxin Xiang instead proposes a constitutional regime based on a modernized Confucianism.

Robert Skidelsky, a member of the British House of Lords, is Professor Emeritus of Political Economy at Warwick University. The author of a three-volume biography of John Maynard Keynes, he began his political career in the Labour party, became the Conservative Party’s spokesman for Treasury affairs in the House of Lords, and was eventually forced out of the Conservative Party for his opposition to NATO’s intervention in Kosovo in 1999

In evidenza

How to Tax the Super Rich (Project-Syndicate)

Does the solution to widening economic inequality lie in a wealth tax? We speak to Emmanuel Saez, an adviser to Elizabeth Warren who helped design the “Ultra-Millionaire Tax” plan.

Emmanuel Saez is the Director of the Center for Equitable Growth at the University of California at Berkeley. He is a recipient of the John Bates Clark medal, awarded to economists under 40 who have made a significant contribution to the economics field, and co-author, with Gabriel Zucman, of Triumph of Injustice: How the Rich Dodge Taxes and How to Make Them Pay – Elmira Bayrasli is the co-founder and CEO of Foreign Policy Interrupted and the author of From The Other Side of The World: Extraordinary Entrepreneurs, Unlikely Places

In evidenza

HK police to recruit 1,815 officers to deal with unrest (Global Times)

Hong Kong police aim to recruit 1,815 officers by March in a bid to better safeguard the city which has been troubled by six months of social unrest, and encourage those who share the city’s determination to uphold the rule of law and protect the city to join the service.

In evidenza

Chinese military exploring new ways of replenishment support at sea (Global Times)

The Taihu, a military supply ship, conducted a replenishment docking with civilian container ship Fuzhou in an offshore area in mid-November amid the Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) exploration of new ways to replenish ships at sea, the PLA Daily reported Monday.

In evidenza

UNEP chief lauds China for global leadership in tackling climate crisis (Global Times)

China has become an important global partner in addressing the current climate crisis as the country demonstrates concrete ways to achieve a low-carbon future, chief of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has said.

In evidenza

Spy case flip-flop reveals anti-China bias (Global Times)

Wang Liqiang, a self-claimed high-level Chinese spy who defected to Australia, seems to have been having trouble backing up his story. According to the latest news, Australian security agencies concluded that Wang might be at most “a bit player on the fringes of the espionage community.” Some Australian media outlets even described this case as a “spy farce.”


In evidenza

US again scuppers international cooperation on women’s rights (Global Times)

Thirty-seven Asia-Pacific countries on Friday voted to adopt the Asia-Pacific Declaration on Advancing Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: Beijing+25 Review, an outcome that was hoped to be a consensus document but received last minute objections from the US.

By Mu Lu

In evidenza

China needs fiscal, monetary stimulus to sustain growth (Global Times)

When a significant economy like China’s faces an outlook of an evident slowdown, an economist’s common-sense response would be to ram up the magnitude of fiscal stimulus, and simultaneously cut taxes and fees for the middle class so they will have more in their pockets to shop and activate domestic spending.

By Li Hong

In evidenza

Can Germany transcend ideological difference to form realistic China policy? (Global Times)

The Christian Democratic Union (CDU) of Germany – the country’s ruling party whose former leader is German Chancellor Angela Merkel – held a conference on November 22 and 23 in Leipzig. The party made decisions on major issues including the candidate selection process and pension reform. Amid complicated international situation and volatile German politics, the CDU conference plays a significant role in German development and clarifies the country’s role in its future internal and foreign affairs.

By Mao Xiaohong

In evidenza

Bangladeshi Migrants Return Home from Libya With IOM’s Assistance (IOM)

More than 150 Bangladeshi migrants including conflict wounded, survivors of failed sea crossings to Europe and former detainees returned home from Libya Thursday morning with the assistance of the International Organization for Migration’s (IOM) Voluntary Humanitarian Return (VHR) programme.

In evidenza

After ISIL, Agricultural Production Struggles to Recover in Parts of Iraq (IOM)

The Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) occupied large swathes of Iraqi territory between 2014 and 2017. The consequences of this occupation are still being felt in many rural areas where agricultural production was used as both a source of political propaganda and income, or destroyed as the group was forced out, a new IOM report says.

In evidenza

The aggregate and distributional effects of financial globalisation (VOX)

Free trade has contributed to a ‘great convergence’ of emerging market countries toward incomes in industrialised nations in recent decades. It is less clear whether free mobility of capital across national boundaries has conferred similar benefits. This column presents evidence suggesting that the gains in average incomes have been – at best – small, while increases in income inequality and the decline in the labour share of income have been significant. Financial globalisation thus poses far more difficult equity-efficiency trade-offs than free trade and should be at the centre of debates about how to make globalisation inclusive.

Davide Furceri, Prakash Loungani, Jonathan D. Ostry

In evidenza

Systemic consequences of outsourcing to the cloud (VOX)

Financial institutions are increasingly outsourcing information technology to the cloud, motivated by efficiency, security, and cost. This column argues that the consequence is likely to be short- and medium-term stability at the cost of the increased likelihood of catastrophic systemic events. Cloud providers are systemically important and should be regulated as such.

Jon Danielsson, Robert Macrae

In evidenza

The China Shock and employment in Portuguese firms: The role of labour market regulations (VOX)

China’s rise as an export powerhouse has affected labour markets across the Western world, but the effects appear to differ dramatically across countries. This column evaluates the impact of rising Chinese exports on Portuguese employment, finding that labour market effects are shaped by indirect competition and labour market regulation.

Lee Branstetter, Brian Kovak, Jackie Mauro, Ana Venâncio

In evidenza

Chile’s insurgency and the end of neoliberalism (VOX)

In a few decades, Chile experienced dramatic economic growth and the fastest reduction of inequality in the region. Yet, many Chilean citizens feel that inequality has greatly increased. Such feelings of ‘malestar’ triggered the violent social unrest of October 2019. This paper explains this seeming paradox by differentiating ‘vertical’ (income) inequality from ‘horizontal’ (social) inequality. It argues that the neoliberalism that created Chile’s economic growth is no longer effective and that Chile may be headed towards adopting a welfare state model.

Sebastian Edwards

In evidenza

The NHS Is Not for Sale – But a US–UK Trade Deal Could Still Have an Impact (Chatham House)

Charles Clift examines what recently leaked documents mean – and do not mean – for healthcare in transatlantic trade negotiations.

Dr Charles Clift

In evidenza

UK General Election 2019: BBC–Chatham House Foreign Policy Debate (Chatham House)

As the UK prepares to go to the polls on 12 December, Chatham House and the BBC’s The World Tonight gave an audience the opportunity to put their international affairs questions to the foreign policy spokespersons from the Conservatives, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and the Scottish National Party.


Stephen Gethins, Candidate for Fife North East and Shadow Spokesperson for Foreign and Commonwealth Office (2018-19), Scottish National Party (remote)
Dominic Raab, Candidate for Esher & Walton, Foreign Secretary and First Secretary of State (2019), Conservative Party
Emily Thornberry, Candidate for Islington South & Finsbury and Shadow Foreign Secretary (2016-19), Labour Party
Chuka Umunna, Candidate for Cities of London & Westminster and Spokesperson for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (2019), Liberal Democrat Party
Chair: Ritula Shah, The World Tonight, BBC Radio 4

In evidenza

You Can’t Make Peace with Antisemites (BESA Center)

The time has come for Israel to stop willfully ignoring the phenomenon of Holocaust denial in the Arab world and start fighting it. Dialogue and rapprochement cannot possibly start from a position of antisemitism and Holocaust denial.


In evidenza

The Phenomenon of “Global Russia” (BESA Center)

As Russia increases its geopolitical involvement across the globe, the concept of “Global Russia” has been gradually taking hold. Though Russia is inherently weak, it is likely that Moscow will continue its global initiatives throughout the 2020s. Only by the end of that decade and into the next is there likely to be a gradual decline in Russia’s adventurism abroad.


In evidenza

What Kind of Capitalism Do We Want? (Project-Syndicate)

Though the concept of “stakeholder capitalism” has been around for a half-century, it has only recently begun to gain traction against the prevailing shareholder-primacy model of profit maximization. Now, advocates of a more socially conscious economic system must take steps to ensure that their vision takes hold for the long term.

Klaus Schwab is Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum

In evidenza

The Billionaire Problem (Project-Syndicate)

Writing in the 1830s, as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace, Honoré de Balzac anticipated the broader social concern: “The secret of great fortunes without apparent cause is a crime that has been forgotten, because it was properly carried out.” But today’s billionaires make forgetting impossible.

Simon Johnson, a former chief economist of the IMF, is a professor at MIT Sloan, a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, and co-founder of a leading economics blog, The Baseline Scenario. He is the co-author, with Jonathan Gruber, of Jump-Starting America: How Breakthrough Science Can Revive Economic Growth and the American Dream.

In evidenza

Earth System Alert (Project-Syndicate)

In response to growing public demand, policymakers and business leaders are increasingly uniting around shared commitments to reduce planet-warming greenhouse-gas emissions. But while phasing out fossil fuels is necessary, ensuring humanity’s long-term survival will also require far-reaching protections for the Earth’s natural systems.

Johan Rockström is Co-Chair of Future Earth’s Advisory Committee and Director of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research – Joyeeta Gupta is Professor of Environment and Development in the Global South at the University of Amsterdam and Professor of Law and Policy in Water Resources and Environment at the IHE Delft Institute for Water Education – Dahe Qin is Director of the Academic Committee of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

In evidenza

Hong Kong Says No to the China Dream (Project-Syndicate)

China’s leaders and their mouthpieces in Hong Kong have repeatedly claimed that a silent majority of the local community opposed the demonstrators, and that foreign “black hands” were behind the protests. But the city’s district council elections on November 24 told a different story.

Chris Patten, the last British governor of Hong Kong and a former EU commissioner for external affairs, is Chancellor of the University of Oxford.

In evidenza

The Global Impact of the Amazon Rainforest Fires (CFR)

Panelists discuss the international concern surrounding the climate crisis in Brazil’s Amazon rainforest and how to address heightened deforestation.

Monica B. de Bolle

Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics

Peter Seligmann

Chairman, Conservation International; CEO, Nia Tero 

Daniel Zarin

Director of Programs, Climate and Land Use Alliance

Mark R. Tercek

Former President and Chief Executive Officer, Nature Conservancy 

In evidenza

Distinguished Voices Series with Susan E. Rice (CFR)

Susan Rice discusses her new book Tough Love: My Story of the Things Worth Fighting For, which is a look back on her dynamic career in public service.

Susan E. Rice

Distinguished Visiting Research Fellow, American University; Former National Security Advisor; Former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations; Author, Tough Love: My Story of the Things Worth Fighting For         


President, Council on Foreign Relations

In evidenza

Climate change exposes young generations to life-long health harm (WEF)

  • A global study has found children are particularly vulnerable to the health risks of a changing climate because their bodies are still developing
  • If limited action is taken, the study found children would be vulnerable to malnutrition and rising food prices
  • Scientists called for urgent action to reduce outdoor and indoor pollution through the introduction of cleaner fuels and vehicles

, Correspondent, Reuters

In evidenza

How religions shape the environmental movement in Indonesia (WEF)

  • Indonesia has thousands of islands, so is vulnerable to rising sea levels
  • It has the largest Muslim population in the world: making up 87% of its people
  • When the UN Climate Summit was held in Bali in 2007, religious leaders released a statement affirming their responsibility to address the problem

, PhD Researcher in Religious Studies, University of Leeds

In evidenza

Freshwater lakes emit a dangerous amount of carbon – and it’s only going to get worse (WEF)

  • Research reveals that microbes in lakes release as much as 25% of the net carbon from Earth’s surface into the atmosphere
  • It’s surprising given lakes only cover 4% of the planet’s land surface
  • The more organic matter there is in lakes – including fallen leaves – the more carbon is emitted
  • Managing land near lakes could help reduce carbon emissions

, Reader in Global Change Ecology, , University of Cambridge

In evidenza

The truth behind science’s relationship with plastic (WEF)

  • Biomedical and agricultural labs worldwide could be responsible for up to 5.5 million tonnes of lab plastic waste a year
  • The University of Leeds has pledged to go single-use-plastic-free by 2023
  • Lab waste plastics are usually sent to landfill after being sterilised, but some aren’t too contaminated to recycle

, Science policy blogger, Guardian

In evidenza

Transforming Infrastructure: Frameworks for Bringing the Fourth Industrial Revolution to Infrastructure (WEF)

The technological advances of the Fourth Industrial Revolution have fundamentally altered society in ways both seen and unseen. This digital transformation has changed how people live and work, and everything in between. One area of daily life, however, seems to be largely missing out on this revolution: infrastructure. It remains one of the least digitally transformed sectors of the economy. While individual examples of highly advanced infrastructure systems exist, the sector at large lags behind others in innovation, a fact made all the more apparent by infrastructure’s ubiquity. When the World Economic Forum Global Future Council on Infrastructure gathered for its annual meeting in Dubai in November 2018, it sought to understand why.

In evidenza

Policy Pathways for the New Economy (WEF)

Unfolding technological developments pose a significant challenge in terms of the depth of economic and social transformation needed for their benefits to be fully realized and equitably distributed. Questions are emerging regarding the adequacy of our current economic policies and practices, the social contract between citizens, businesses and governments and the metrics used to assess socio-economic progress.

In evidenza

Responsible Ownership: Reshaping Business as a Force for Good (WEF)

All around the world, demand is rapidly growing for a new type of leadership capable of securing sustainable long-term value creation rather than short-term profit maximization. For decades, some owners have treated “responsibility” as the business model and have found that their returns are often superior to less principled approaches, especially when measured over the long term.

In evidenza

Supply Chain Collaboration through Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (WEF)

This report is the result of a collaboration between members of the World Economic Forum Council on Advanced Manufacturing and Production. It summarizes the main findings of work conducted on the application of advanced manufacturing and digital technologies on future production and supply-chain models. The applications set out in this paper highlight the importance of collaborations across supply-chain partners as crucial to technology adoption and exploitation.

In evidenza

Making Manufacturing Sustainable by Design (WEF)

Although more than 50% of the world’s total energy is consumed by manufacturing-related activities, advanced manufacturing technologies offer companies dramatic opportunities to boost productivity and competitiveness while simultaneously reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing.

In evidenza

A Global Standard for Lifelong Learning and Worker Engagement to Support Advanced Manufacturing (WEF)

The full benefits of the Fourth Industrial Revolution can be realized and broadly shared only if the workforce is provided with adequate opportunities for continuous training and is fully engaged in the processes of designing and implementing advanced manufacturing technologies and changing work systems. This will require new forms of collaboration from business, labour, education and government stakeholders.

In evidenza

Global Technology Governance: A Multistakeholder Approach (WEF)

The dynamics of the Fourth Industrial Revolution mean that systems of governance are, on the whole, failing to deliver what is needed in terms of minimizing risks and costs, while maximizing opportunities and benefits. This is true at all levels – global, regional, national, subnational and local – and across the public sector, among businesses, in the media and within civil society.

In evidenza

The EU’s University in Exile (Project-Syndicate)

The arbitrary ouster of Central European University from Hungary highlights two realities about the European Union. First, the EU has relatively little power to protect the non-economic rights of the bloc’s citizens, and, second, leading European politicians lack the will to stop autocrats like Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán.

László Bruszt, Professor of Political Science at Central European University, served as Acting Rector and President of CEU in 1996-1997.

In evidenza

Climate Adaptation Now (Project-Syndicate)

Governments and the private sector are feeling increasing pressure from the public to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and strengthen environmental conservation policies. But the world also cannot ignore the more immediate need for investments in climate resilience.

Emma Navarro is Vice President of the European Investment Bank.

In evidenza

What Should Economists Be Doing? (Project-Syndicate)

Economics is now at a stage when we need to examine the assumptions in the woodwork that are hindering our ability to understand and map the new world of digital technology and inter-linkages that we are just beginning to inhabit. “Normal science” must continue, but it also is time for paradigmatic thinking.

Kaushik Basu, former Chief Economist of the World Bank and former Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India, is Professor of Economics at Cornell University and Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution.

In evidenza

Bipolar Economics (Project-Syndicate)

Randomized controlled trials are the flavor of the month in development economics, with their keenest advocates having just been awarded the Nobel Prize. But can this experimental approach really be counted on to produce better economic policies?

Andrés Velasco, a former presidential candidate and finance minister of Chile, is Dean of the School of Public Policy at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He is the author of numerous books and papers on international economics and development, and has served on the faculty at Harvard, Columbia, and New York Universities.

In evidenza

Climate Change Fears and Polarization (BESA Center)

The surging interest in climate change intermingles science, ideology, politics, and religion and is likely to lead to increased polarization in Western societies. By analyzing the key characteristics of environmentalism and trying to assess societal developments, we can monitor the impact of climate change awareness and the inciting of fear.


In evidenza

The Limits of Lagarde (Project-Syndicate)

Mario Draghi deserves neither hostility nor adulation for his stewardship of the European Central Bank. He proved adept at working within ridiculous constraints that forced him to do things that no central banker should ever do. What matters today is that his successor, Christine Lagarde, will have to labor within exactly the same ridiculous constraints.

Yanis Varoufakis, a former finance minister of Greece, is leader of the MeRA25 party and Professor of Economics at the University of Athens.

In evidenza

The Makings of a “Geopolitical” European Commission (Project-Syndicate)

As if incoming European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen was not already inheriting a full plate of major challenges, she has also promised to reshape the EU into a “geopolitical” force to be reckoned with. To succeed, she will need to pass seven tests, in areas ranging from climate change to cybersecurity and competition policy.

Mark Leonard is Director of the European Council on Foreign Relations

In evidenza

Only Democratic Literacy Can Save Democracy (Project-Syndicate)

Free, credible, and independent news media are a pillar of any functioning democracy, essential to enable voters to make informed decisions and to hold elected leaders accountable. Given this, media literacy must be pursued within a broader campaign to improve democratic literacy.

Alexandra Borchardt is a senior research associate at the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at the University of Oxford.

In evidenza

The Power of Green Public Finance (Project-Syndicate)

In addition to visionary leadership and a mobilization of businesses, citizens, and civil-society groups, confronting climate change will require massive investments. We cannot count on governments alone to put up the money; rather, we must use public finance to leverage the power of private capital.

Werner Hoyer is President of the European Investment Bank.

In evidenza

The world needs a grand coalition to tackle climate change (WEF)

More than 40 years after the International Energy Agency (IEA) published the first edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO), the report’s overarching aim remains the same – to deepen our understanding of the future of energy. It does so by examining the opportunities and risks that lie ahead, and the consequences of different courses of action or inaction. The WEO analyses the choices that will shape our energy use, our environment and our wellbeing. It is not, and has never been, a forecast of where the energy world will end up.

, Executive Director, International Energy Agency

In evidenza

How the inventor of the internet plans to make it safe and accessible for everyone (WEF)

  • Half the world is connected to the internet today.
  • Concerns about civility, bullying and hate speech on the internet are growing.
  • Contract for the Web includes nine principles to fix the internet and make it safe and accessible for everyone.

, Senior Writer, Formative Content

In evidenza

Quelle place pour les Amérindiens dans les États-Unis de Trump? (IFRI)

Alors que le feuilleton de l’impeachment se poursuit, avec la conduite d’auditions très importantes au Congrès depuis 10 jours, l’actualité américaine va sans doute être assez discrète cette semaine. Car ce jeudi 28 novembre, c’est Thanksgiving –cette fête qui tient une place si importante dans le récit national américain: elle commémore ce moment où les pèlerins du Mayflower ont fraternisé lors d’un repas festif avec les Indiens après leur première récolte, en 1621 dans le Massachusetts.

Laurence NARDON, 18ème épisode de la série de podcasts “Trump 2020” en partenariat avec et Time to Sign Off

In evidenza

Dramaturgie budgétaire (IFRI)

Le débat sur les perspectives financières de l’Union européenne (UE) s’inscrit traditionnellement dans une dramaturgie complexe, qui confine à la cacophonie : les tenants de la solidarité européenne s’opposent aux partisans du juste retour, les défenseurs des politiques sectorielles traditionnelles aux promoteurs des dépenses destinées à préparer l’avenir, les nouveaux Etats membres aux anciens, les Etats du nord de l’Europe à ceux du sud…

Éric-André MARTIN, article paru sur Visegrad Insight

In evidenza

Les soulèvements en Irak, en Iran et au Liban s’enveniment (IFRI)

La rébellion se durcit en Irak, où les contestataires occupent ponts, sites pétroliers et axes routiers. En Iran, le régime affirme avoir maté la rébellion. Au Liban, les manifestations jusqu’ici festives sont depuis dimanche attaquées par des pro- Hezbollah. A Beyrouth comme à Téhéran et Bagdad, les manifestants dénoncent la corruption et la gabegie.

Adel BAKAWAN, cité par Yves Bourdillon, pour Les Echos

In evidenza

La fin de la toute puissance des godfathers dans la politique nigériane ? (IFRI)

Les articles de recherche et de presse expliquant la puissance des godfathers au Nigeria se multiplient à l’approche de chaque élection locale et nationale.

Benjamin AUGE

In evidenza

Les défis de la transformation du secteur électrique européen. Concurrence, numérique et réseaux (IFRI)

Les risques sont multiples : qu’il n’y ait pas suffisamment d’investissements dans les nouvelles capacités de production bas carbone ni dans les réseaux ; que l’insertion des technologies de stockage de l’électricité et de flexibilité du système se fasse à des coûts très élevés et de manière inefficace ; que l’interaction entre les grands réseaux et infrastructures et les microsystèmes soit mal pensée et coordonnée ; que la digitalisation des systèmes électriques nourrisse une nouvelle fracture numérique ; que nos systèmes électriques soient contrôlés de manière croissante par les GAFAMI (Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft, IBM) ou des acteurs chinois ; que la sécurité des approvisionnements et la décarbonation ne soient pas garanties.


In evidenza

Intelligence artificielle et politique internationale. Les impacts d’une rupture technologique (IFRI)

Elle constitue déjà un levier de puissance, tout particulièrement entre les États-Unis et la Chine. Pékin investit massivement dans la robotisation et l’apprentissage profond (deep learning), quand les grands acteurs californiens du numérique construisent le futur de l’IA. Le développement d’applications militaires favorise une « course aux armements » qui contribue à renouveler l’art de la guerre. L’usage malveillant d’intelligences artificielles à des fins de propagande de précision constitue déjà une donnée de la vie politique internationale, tout particulièrement en Occident. Une gouvernance mondiale de l’IA reste à bâtir, dans laquelle l’Union européenne doit dessiner une voie qui lui est propre, sur le modèle de l’enjeu des données personnelles.


In evidenza

Business dynamism in Turkey (VOX)

Numerous empirical studies have shown a decrease in business dynamism in the US and other high-income countries in the last decades. This column investigates the case of the Turkish manufacturing sector. Results indicate that business dynamism in the sector has declined since 2012. Market concentration and exit rates have risen, and new business creation, the labour share in output and economic activities of young firms have fallen. Using an endogenous growth framework, it argues that the inability of follower firms to credibly challenge market leaders is a likely reason, brought on by a lack of access to finance.

Ufuk Akcigit, Yusuf Emre Akgündüz, Seyit Mümin Cilasun, Elif Ozcan-Tok, Fatih Yılmaz

In evidenza

Dynamic social interactions and health risk behaviour (VOX)

Smoking and alcohol use are widespread among adolescents in the US and are linked to negative socioeconomic effects.While existing research has separately looked at the dynamic choice and the social interactions that shape adolescent risky behaviours, this column considers both components in a dynamic social interactions model. Looking at alcohol and smoking use in a school environment, it finds that addiction and peer effects are more than twice as important as the effect of individual preferences in shaping risky behaviour and that students take into account the amount of time they have left in the school system.

Tiziano Arduini, Alberto Bisin, Onur Ozgur, Eleonora Patacchini

In evidenza

Trump’s trade war cost Republicans congressional seats in the 2018 midterm elections (VOX)

Emily Blanchard, Chad Bown, Davin Chor
In evidenza

Don’t blame Brussels if you don’t benefit from EU Cohesion Policy!

Despite the European Commission’s claims that its Cohesion Policy has had a positive impact on beneficiary regions, some member states argue that it is not fit for purpose and have called for a renationalisation of the policy. This column suggests that while there have been some positive effects on regional growth and jobs across the EU as a whole, these have been concentrated in the beneficiary regions of Germany and the UK, and structural problems in the South of Europe remain largely untouched. This uneven distribution of regional impacts along national lines suggests that individual member states have significant responsibilities for the local success (or failure) of the policy.

Riccardo Crescenzi, Mara Giua

In evidenza

Marriage, fertility, and the cultural integration of immigrants in Italy (VOX)

As migration to Western countries has steadily increased, conversations addressing the issue have stalled somewhere between vaguely well-meaning integration objectives and restrictive closed-borders policies. This column moves the conversation forward by examining specific migrant communities in Italy. Using the language spoken at home as a proxy for cultural-ethnic transmission, it finds that higher rates of marriage between immigrants and the native population encourage a higher acceptance of minority cultures, which in turn allows immigrants to better maintain their distinctive cultural traits.

Alberto Bisin, Giulia Tura

In evidenza

United Russia’s Rehabilitation Means a Tightening of the Screws (Carnegie Moscow Center)

The ruling party will clearly retain its central place under any future scenario for the transition of power, and anyone who hurries to jump on the bandwagon today will likely come out on top.

Tatiana Stanovaya

In evidenza

A Spoiler in the Balkans? Russia and the Final Resolution of the Kosovo Conflict (Carnegie Moscow Center)

So long as Serbia does not formally recognize Kosovo’s independence, it must rely on Russia’s veto power in the UN Security Council. That dependency gives Russia a nontrivial degree of influence, both in the region and within Serbia itself.


In evidenza

Italy’s Libyan conundrum: The risks of short-term thinking (ECFR)

By prioritising short-term gains in irregular migration and energy security, Italy and the EU have helped create an unsustainable security and political situation in Libya.

Arturo Varvelli and Matteo Villa

In evidenza

This digital currency could build a more sustainable global economy (WEF)

A teller counts Philippine peso bills at an international money remittance center in Makati City, Metro Manila, Philippines September 19, 2018

Whether we are talking about trade and investment or banking and payments, stablecoins and the technology underlying them will be the building blocks of a more sustainable, inclusive, and resilient global financial system. This will require not only interoperability across blockchains, but also interoperability between fiat cash and digital currencies, and between centralized and decentralized systems.

 – chief product officer, Fusion Foundation

 – Senior Adviser, Emerging Technologies, Lapa Capital

In evidenza

The Fourth Industrial Revolution is redefining the economy as we know it (WEF)

The Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) upends current economic frameworks. Who makes money – and how – has changed. Demographics have changed. Even the skills that brought our society to where we are today have changed. Leaders must account for these transformations or risk leaving behind their companies, their customers and their constituents.

 – CEO, Pipeline

In evidenza

New study on the socio-economic impact of anti-vehicle mines in Angola (SIPRI)

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), SIPRI and King’s College London (KCL) have released a new study on the socio-economic impact of anti-vehicle mines (AVM) in Angola. The study outlines the socio-economic impact of AVM contamination and benefits of AVM clearance on sustainable development.


In evidenza

Towards a European Security Council ? (Centre for European Reform)

France and Germany have discussed forming a ‘European Security Council’ to strengthen European foreign policy and co-ordinate closely with the UK after Brexit. While it could make Europe stronger, it may also prove divisive.

Luigi Scazzieri

In evidenza

Iran: World must strongly condemn use of lethal force against protesters as death toll rises to 143 (Amnesty International)

The international community must denounce the intentional lethal use of force by Iranian security forces that has resulted in the killings of at least 143 protesters since demonstrations broke out on 15 November, Amnesty International said today.

In evidenza

Facebook Twitter Turkey: Prosecution call for jail term of up to 15 years for six human rights defenders, including Amnesty’s honorary chair and former director, defies logic (Amnesty International)

Following a request by the State Prosecutor for the conviction of Amnesty Turkey’s honorary chair, Taner Kılıç, former director İdil Eser and four other human rights defenders on terrorism-related charges, Marie Struthers Europe, Director for Amnesty International, said:

“Today’s vindictive request by the State Prosecutor for jail terms of up to 15 years ignores the evidence and defies all logic.

“The terrorist allegations made against Taner, İdil and four others have been repeatedly disproven over the course of nine previous hearings and it is clear today, as it has been from the start, that the Istanbul 10 and Taner are on trial for nothing more than their human rights work. They must be acquitted.”

If convicted, they risk up to 15 years imprisonment. The next, and presumably final trial hearing, is set to take place on 19 February 2020.

In evidenza

Egypt: State Security prosecution operating as a ‘sinister tool of repression’ (Amnesty International)

A new report published by Amnesty International exposes how Egypt’s Supreme State Security Prosecution (SSSP) is routinely misusing counter-terror legislation to prosecute thousands of peaceful critics and suspend guarantees to fair trial.

In evidenza

Brazil: Halt illegal cattle farms fuelling Amazon rainforest destruction (Amnesty International)

  • Cattle farming is the main driver of illegal land seizures that violate human rights in Reserves and Indigenous territories
  • Satellite imagery and official data reveal evidence of cattle farming in protected areas
  • Amnesty International Brazil and Indigenous leaders to hand over petition to Bolsonaro government calling for action

In evidenza

Steadying the New Status Quo in Syria’s North East (ICG)

A tumultuous month in north-eastern Syria has left a tense standoff among the regime, Turkey and the YPG, mediated by Russia and, to some degree, still the U.S. All parties should respect the ceasefire as the regime and YPG negotiate more stable long-term arrangements.

In evidenza

Implications of Afghan-Pakistani Clashes Along the Durand Line (BESA Center)

Frequent violent clashes between Afghan and Pakistani security forces along their disputed border, the colonial-era Durand Line drawn in 1893, have strained ties between Islamabad and Kabul. Afghanistan does not accept the legitimacy of the Durand Line, claiming it is a violation of its sovereignty, while Pakistan believes it is an accepted international border. These tensions will likely worsen following the pending departure of the Americans from Afghanistan.


In evidenza

How World Bank Arbitrators Mugged Pakistan (Project-Syndicate)

Thanks to the World Bank’s flawed and corrupt investment arbitration process, the rich are making a fortune at the expense of poor countries. The latest shakedown is a $5.9 billion award against Pakistan’s government in favor of two global mining companies for an illegal project that was never approved or carried out.

Jeffrey D. Sachs is University Professor at Columbia University and Sustainable Development Goals Advocate for United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres. His books include The End of PovertyCommon WealthThe Age of Sustainable DevelopmentBuilding the New American Economy, and most recently, A New Foreign Policy: Beyond American Exceptionalism.

In evidenza

The Economic Potential of Gender Parity for Africa (Project-Syndicate)

Although some African countries have made significant progress toward gender parity in various domains, the continent as a whole is falling behind. African policymakers, businesses, and community leaders need to step up their game in at least five priority areas.

Acha Leke is a senior partner in McKinsey & Company’s Johannesburg office – Lohini Moodley is a McKinsey & Company partner in Addis Ababa

In evidenza

Can Hong Kong Avoid Tragedy? (Project-Syndicate)

To protect their own futures, the people of Hong Kong must reflect carefully on the need to end violent protests and work together to address genuine grievances. The alternative is not some fantasy of an independent and thriving Hong Kong. It is a devastated economy, a divided society, and a lost generation.

Andrew Sheng, Distinguished Fellow of the Asia Global Institute at the University of Hong Kong and a member of the UNEP Advisory Council on Sustainable Finance, is a former chairman of the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Commission. His latest book is From Asian to Global Financial Crisis.

Xiao Geng, President of the Hong Kong Institution for International Finance, is a professor and Director of the Research Institute of Maritime Silk-Road at Peking University HSBC Business School.

In evidenza

After the US-China Trade War (Project-Syndicate)

Trade truce or not, a protracted Cold War-like conflict between the United States and China has already begun. That should worry the US, which, unlike China, is devoid of a long-term strategic framework.

Stephen S. Roach, a faculty member at Yale University and former Chairman of Morgan Stanley Asia, is the author of Unbalanced: The Codependency of America and China.

In evidenza

Sri Lanka’s Presidential Election Brings Back a Polarising Wartime Figure (Crisis Group)

Gotabaya Rajapaksa’s decisive victory in Sri Lanka’s presidential election reflects voters’ concerns over security, poor economic prospects and ineffective governance – but also indicates the country’s dangerous ethnic polarisation. Many worry that Rajapaksa, a Sinhalese nationalist, will energise anti-Muslim campaigning and further alienate the Tamil community.

Alan Keenan

In evidenza

Women and Children First: Repatriating the Westerners Affiliated with ISIS (Crisis Group)

Tens of thousands of foreign men, women and children affiliated with ISIS are detained in northeast Syria. The camps where they are held pose a formidable security and humanitarian challenge to the region. Western governments should, at minimum, accelerate the repatriation of women and children.


In evidenza

Germany’s quiet leadership on the Libyan war (ECFR)

Although Germany’s mediation role in the Libyan conflict has received relatively little attention so far, this might change if its initiative leads to a peace conference – or, alternatively, a collapse of the political process.

René Wildangel   Tarek Megerisi

In evidenza

Human Rights Priorities: An Agenda for Equality and Social Justice (Chatham House)

Following just over one year in office, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, outlines her ongoing priorities at a tumultuous time for fundamental rights protections worldwide.

Michelle Bachelet, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Chair: Ruma Mandal, Head, International Law Programme, Chatham House
In evidenza

Chatham House Prize 2019: Presentation by HM The Queen and Speeches (Chatham House)

Sir David Attenborough and Julian Hector, on behalf of BBC Studios Natural History Unit, collect the prize presented by Her Majesty The Queen during a special members event at Chatham House.


HM The Queen
Sir David Attenborough, Presenter, Blue Planet II 
Mark Brownlow, Series Producer, Blue Planet II 
Dr Julian Hector, Head, BBC Studios Natural History Unit
Moderator: Karen Sack, President and CEO, Ocean Unite
Host: Dr Robin Niblett CMG, Director, Chatham House

In evidenza

Impeachment and the Wider World (Project-Syndicate)

As with the proceedings against former US Presidents Richard Nixon and Bill Clinton, the impeachment inquiry into Donald Trump is ultimately a domestic political issue that will be decided in the US Congress. But, unlike those earlier cases, the Ukraine scandal threatens to jam up the entire machinery of US foreign policy.

Carl Bildt was Sweden’s foreign minister from 2006 to 2014 and Prime Minister from 1991 to 1994, when he negotiated Sweden’s EU accession. A renowned international diplomat, he served as EU Special Envoy to the Former Yugoslavia, High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, UN Special Envoy to the Balkans, and Co-Chairman of the Dayton Peace Conference. He is Co-Chair of the European Council on Foreign Relations.

In evidenza

Making America Mediocre (Project-Syndicate)

America owes its economic strength to its private sector, which has long benefited from an absence of undue influence by politicians and the state. But under US President Donald Trump’s administration, discretionary decisions by policymakers are increasingly giving some companies advantages over others.

Anne O. Krueger, a former World Bank chief economist and former first deputy managing director of the International Monetary Fund, is Senior Research Professor of International Economics at the School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, and Senior Fellow at the Center for International Development, Stanford University.

In evidenza

What Next for Unconventional Monetary Policies? (Project-Syndicate)

Although interest-rate cuts and central-bank asset purchases were highly effective in resolving the 2008 financial crisis, they have proved utterly disappointing in the years since. At this stage, it should be clear that the sustained weakness of private-sector investment is not a problem central bankers can fix on their own.

Stephen Grenville, a former deputy governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia, is a non-resident fellow at the Lowy Institute in Sydney.

In evidenza

Why Financial Markets’ New Exuberance Is Irrational (Project-Syndicate)

Owing to a recent easing of both Sino-American tensions and monetary policies, many investors seem to be betting on another era of expansion for the global economy. But they would do well to remember that the fundamental risks to growth remain, and are actually getting worse.

Nouriel Roubini, Professor of Economics at New York University’s Stern School of Business and Chairman of Roubini Macro Associates, was Senior Economist for International Affairs in the White House’s Council of Economic Advisers during the Clinton Administration. He has worked for the International Monetary Fund, the US Federal Reserve, and the World Bank. His website is

In evidenza

Using extractive industry data to fight inequality & strengthen accountability: Victories, lessons, future directions for Africa (Brookings)

Using extractive industry data to fight inequality & strengthen accountability: Victories, lessons, future directions for Africa

Christina Golubski and Dhruv Gandhi

In evidenza

Global Protests: Russia and China Risk Ending Up on the Wrong Side of History (BESA Center)

Russia and China are widely perceived as the rising powers in the Middle East as a result of America’s flip-flops in Syria and President Donald Trump’s transactional approach to foreign policy. This perception also reflects an acknowledgement of Russian and Chinese support for regimes irrespective of how non-performing and/or repressive they may be. But they could both ultimately find themselves on the wrong side of history in an era of global breakdown of popular confidence in political systems and incumbent leadership and increasingly determined and resourceful protests.


In evidenza

Can Fernández Fix Argentina? (Project-Syndicate)

By voting President Maurico Macri out of office, Argentinians have signaled that they will no longer tolerate continued economic crisis, much less policies that appear to make matters worse. But, because solutions to Argentina’s problems are not mutually compatible, the new government will likely face similar challenges.

Leandro Mora Alfonsín is a professor at the University of Buenos Aires, the University of Business and Social Sciences, and the National University of General Sarmiento.

In evidenza

A Living Wage for Capitalism (Project-Syndicate)

Higher nominal wages for low-paid workers can boost real earnings, increase consumer spending, and help make housing more affordable. And insofar as raising the minimum would increase companies’ wage bill, it would create a stronger incentive to replace labor with capital, which could lay the foundation for renewed productivity growth.

Jim O’Neill, a former chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management and a former UK Treasury Minister, is Chair of Chatham House.

In evidenza

A Green Industrialization Strategy for Africa (Project-Syndicate)

African countries cannot abandon “brown” industries – those that depend on oil, gas, and minerals – and create a green economy overnight. But they can use them as a tool to achieve a clean, sustainable economy.

Tariye Isoun Gbadegesin is Head of Heavy Industries and Telecoms at Africa Finance Corporation.

In evidenza

Child labour and human trafficking remain important concerns in global supply chains (IOL)

New estimates of child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains are revealed in a report compiled by the ILO, OECD, IOM and UNICEF – members of the Alliance 8.7 partnership on child labour, forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking.–en/index.htm

In evidenza

New report highlights dire working conditions of sanitation workers in some developing countries (IOL)

Countless sanitation workers in the developing world work in conditions that endanger their lives and health, and violate their dignity and rights.–en/index.htm

In evidenza

Convention No 1: A landmark for Workers’ Rights (IOL)

100 years ago the first International Labour Conference adopted the first International Labour Standard – on working time. As the ILO celebrates this landmark moment, ILO Working Time specialist, Jon Messenger, looks back at the history of the Convention and its impact.–en/index.htm

In evidenza

USD 1.35 billion Needed to Help Venezuelan Refugees and Migrants and Host Countries (IOM)

The International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) yesterday (13/11) launched a USD 1.35 billion regional plan to respond to the increasing humanitarian needs of Venezuelan refugees and migrants in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the communities hosting them.


In evidenza

Identifying the impact of the circular economy on the fast-moving consumer goods industry (CEPS)

Opportunities and challenges for businesses, workers and consumers – mobile phones as an example

by Vasileios Rizos / Julie Bryhn / Monica Alessi / Alexandra Campmas / Antonella Zarra

In evidenza

Growing Needs, Insufficient Resources. How to Fund International Refugee Protection? (SWP)

 The December 2018 Global Compact on Refugees reaffirmed the inter­national community’s commitment to refugee protection – yet willing­ness to accept refugees is in decline globally.

 No progress has been seen in the search for viable modes of responsibility-sharing. With the exception of Germany, all the main host countries are middle-income or developing countries.

 In a situation where more people are forced to leave their homes than are able to return every year, the more affluent countries must shoulder more responsibility. That would mean pledging more resettlement places and increasing public and private funding to relieve the poorer host countries.

 Aid organisations regularly find themselves faced with funding shortfalls. As the second-largest donor of humanitarian and development funding, Germany should campaign internationally to expand the available finan­cial resources and improve the efficiency of their use.

 None of the new funding ideas will master the multitude of demands on their own. New and pre-existing financing instruments should therefore be combined.

 The German government should collect experiences with the different funding approaches in its new Expert Commission on the Root Causes of Forced Displacement (Fachkommission Fluchtursachen). The Global Refugee Forum, which meets for the first time in December 2019, pro­vides an opportunity to start a discussion on new ways of mobilising the required funds for international refugee protection.

Steffen AngenendtNadine BiehlerDavid KippAmrei Meier

In evidenza

The crisis in arms control: what crisis ? (Clingendael)

Arms control appears to be in a state of crisis. This Clingendael Spectator series explores the different dimensions of this global challenge. This introductory episode provides an oversight of the most important recent developments in arms control. What crisis are we exactly talking about?

Hugo Klijn

In evidenza

Missing the Big Picture on Poverty Reduction (Project-Syndicate)

China’s experience lifting hundreds of millions of people out of poverty in just a few decades holds important lessons. First and foremost, while randomized controlled trials and the types of targeted programs they assess may have a role to play in fighting inequality, the most powerful poverty-reduction tool is economic growth.

Yuen Yuen Ang is a professor of Political Science at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She is the author of How China Escaped the Poverty Trap and the forthcoming China’s Gilded Age.

In evidenza

Global Trade’s Bright (Green) Future (Project-Syndicate)

Keeping climate change in check will require reducing the carbon footprint associated with global shipping, which accounts for the bulk of world trade. With governments and the shipping industry already moving in the right direction, the challenge will be to agree on policies that are adequate to the scale of the crisis.

Pascal Lamy, a former director-general of the World Trade Organization and EU trade commissioner, is a Global Ocean Commissioner.

In evidenza

The Fall of the Berlin Wall and Social Democracy (Project-Syndicate)

The fall of the Berlin Wall heralded not only the collapse of communism in Europe, but also the destruction of a broader – and far more constructive – social-democratic compact. To prevent a return to extremism and instability, that compact must be refashioned for the twenty-first century.

Daron Acemoglu, Professor of Economics at MIT, is co-author (with James A. Robinson) of Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty and The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty.

In evidenza

Climate, Food and Land (Chatham House)

Tim Benton reflects on the relationship between land, food and climate change, and considers the challenges created by competing demands for the services land produces.


Professor Tim Benton, Director, Energy Environment and Resources Department, Chatham House
Chair: Laura Wellesley, Research Fellow, Energy, Environment and Resources Department, Chatham House

In evidenza

Brexit in a Historical Context: Pursuing a Global Vision at the Expense of Domestic Harmony? (Chatham House)

The panel discusses how the notion, and rhetoric, of ‘Global Britain’ fares against different readings of Britain’s international history.


Dr Priyamvada Gopal, Reader in Anglophone and Related Literature, University of Cambridge

Professor David Reynolds, Professor of International History, University of Cambridge

Dr Helene von Bismarck, Historian and Writer

Chair: Dr Robert Saunders, Reader in Modern British History, Queen Mary University of London

In evidenza

The real effects of money supply shocks: Evidence from maritime disasters in the Spanish Empire (VOX)

During the early 16th to 19th centuries, Spain received large amounts of monetary silver from its colonies in America. Vagaries of the sea thus affected Spain’s money supply. This column investigates the effects of money supply shocks on the economy using the case of maritime disasters in the Spanish Empire. It finds that a one-percentage-point reduction in the money growth rate caused a 1.3% drop in real output that persisted for several years. Analysing monetary transmission channels, it shows that price rigidities and credit frictions account for most of this non-neutrality result.

Adam Brzezinski, Yao Chen, Nuno Palma, Felix Ward

In evidenza

Economic warfare: Insights from Mançur Olson (VOX)

Economic warfare was widely used in WWII. When one country blockaded another’s supply of essential goods or bombed the industries producing them, why did the adversary’s economy fail to collapse? This column, part of the Vox debate on the economics of WWII, reviews Mançur Olson’s insights, which arose from the elementary economic concept of substitution. He concluded that there are no essential goods; there are only essential uses, which can generally be supplied in many ways.

Mark Harrison

In evidenza

Quantifying the unemployment effects of Trump’s protectionist policies (VOX)

Unemployment is absent from most quantitative trade models in the academic literature. Using a trade model that also includes unemployment and data between 2001 and 2008, this column shows that repealing NAFTA and the imposition of 20% bilateral tariffs between the US and Mexico in all sectors would reduce welfare by 0.31% in the US and by 6.6% in Mexico. An US increase of trade barriers on motor vehicles against imports from all countries bar Mexico and Canada would lead to a decrease in long-run welfare and employment in both Mexico and the US as well as in major car-producing countries.

Céline Carrère, Anja Grujovic, Frédéric Robert-Nicoud

In evidenza

Supplier networks as a key to wartime production in Japan (VOX)

During World War II aircraft production in Japan increased sharply. This column, part of the Vox debate on the economics of WWII, examines the reasons for this ‘production miracle’, focusing on an aircraft manufacturing plant of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co., one of the two largest aircraft producers in Japan. The key to the production increase was the expansion of the supplier network. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries organized many suppliers to provide aircraft parts to its plants. However, in the final stage of the war, destruction of the supplier network by strategic bombing and an earthquake caused the collapse of the company’s aircraft production.

Tetsuji Okazaki

In evidenza

On the decline of R&D efficiency (VOX)

Following the Global Crisis, some countries increased expenditures on research and development (R&D) to address secular stagnation. This column investigates how successful this rise in R&D scale was in supporting productivity growth in Japan and other advanced economies. It argues that R&D efficiency has declined in many of these countries in the past decade, compared to the preceding ten years. This suggests that increasing R&D spending is not enough to foster growth, and that countries need to do more to support innovation and collaboration in carefully chosen sectors.

Tsutomu Miyagawa, Takayuki Ishikawa

In evidenza

An Example, Not a Blueprint: Germany’s 1989 and Korean Reunification (GMF)

Historical anniversaries are always a time to reflect, to celebrate and criticize times past. They usually portray a national or international commemoration of an event that had a significant impact on a community. And they give room for cries for a repetition or a condemnation of it. With the thirtieth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall, this phenomenon is yet again evident across the globe—1989: the year in which a divided German city rang in the fall of communism; the year in which a torn country laid the grounds for reunification; the year in which freedom won over oppression. A glorious success, a leading example for the rest of the world.

Carolin Wefer

In evidenza

Reflecting on 1989: What the Past Three Decades Can Tell Us About the Future (GMF)

Thirty years ago, the Berlin Wall fell, ending the division of an entire continent. The bipolar system of the Cold War dissolved and a new optimism about the future took hold in the West and around the globe. Liberal democracy was on the march and Francis Fukuyama’s thesis of “the end of history” pointed the way ahead. Today, the hopeful mood of 1989 has been replaced by gloom. The West is no longer unified in its support for liberal democracy and a new geopolitical competition is reshaping the international system. What lessons can we draw from 1989 to face current challenges? How should we handle today’s uncertainty to protect democracy tomorrow?

Keynote Speaker and Panelist

  • Francis Fukuyama, Professor of Political Science, Stanford University


  • Thomas Kleine-Brockhoff, Vice President, The German Marshall Fund of the United States
  • Alina Mungiu-Pippidi, Professor of Democracy Studies, Hertie School
In evidenza

Concern For Migrants At Europe’s African Land Borders (IOM, Forbes)

Clinging desperately to the truck’s undercarriage, it’s hard to imagine the boy’s terror. What horrors drove him to the Spanish border, we’ll never know. The 13-year-old dropped under the lorry’s wheel, and his tiny body was crushed. Another life lost in Europe’s unremitting migrant crisis; but not, like most, amid the misery of a Mediterranean crossing. The child died attempting entry at one of Europe’s two land borders with North Africa – frightening frontiers where human rights are in free fall, experts warn.

Alasdair Lane

In evidenza

Many imperial Romans had roots in the Middle East, genetic history shows (IOM, Science)

Two thousand years ago, the streets of Rome bustled with people from all over the ancient world. The empire’s trade routes stretched from North Africa to Asia, and new immigrants poured in every day, both by choice and by force. Now, an ancient DNA study has shown those far-flung connections were written in the genomes of the Romans.

By Lizzie Wade

In evidenza

Libya: Migrant mother’s dying wish to get children to Europe (IOM)

For the sixth year in a row, more than 1,000 people have died attempting to cross the Mediterranean Sea, according to the UN Refugee Agency.

In evidenza

The Digital Money Revolution (Project-Syndicate)

The rapid pace and sheer scale of innovation in digital currencies and mobile payments indicates that a monetary revolution is forthcoming. The choice for governments and central banks is whether to stand in front of a train that is gaining steam, or get on board and reap the benefits.

Huw van Steenis, a former senior adviser to Bank of England Governor Mark Carney, is Chair of Sustainable Finance at UBS and a member of the World Economic Forum’s Global Future Council on the Monetary and Financial System.

In evidenza

The Growing Threat of Water Wars (Project-Syndicate)

In 2015, United Nations member states adopted the Sustainable Development Goals, which include an imperative to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.” Yet, in the last four years, matters have deteriorated significantly.

Jayati Ghosh is Professor of Economics at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, Executive Secretary of International Development Economics Associates, and a member of the Independent Commission for the Reform of International Corporate Taxation.

In evidenza

China’s Risky Endgame in Hong Kong (Project-Syndicate)

In 2017, Chinese President Xi Jinping declared that by the time the People’s Republic celebrates its centenary in 2049, it should be a “great modern socialist country” with an advanced economy. But following through with planned measures to tighten mainland China’s grip on Hong Kong would make achieving that goal all but impossible.

Minxin Pei is a professor of government at Claremont McKenna College and a non-resident senior fellow at the German Marshall Fund of the United States.

In evidenza

Don’t Rush Quantum-Proof Encryption, Warns NSA Research Director (Defense One)

Quantum computers could crack the codes that secure the world’s digital information but racing to a solution could create more threats.


In evidenza

China Says It’s Developing 6G. What Does That Mean? (Defense One)

Just as the US and the West grapple with China’s lead in next-gen 5G networking gear, Beijing announced two working groups focused on advancing 6G.


In evidenza

Two people separated by a common idea: Why Macron and AKK agree (ECFR)

Macron’s and AKK’s distinct styles obscure a core agreement: threats to the transatlantic relationship mean that European countries must finally stand up and defend themselves.

Ulrike Esther Franke

In evidenza

America’s Feeble Indo-Pacific Strategy (Project-Syndicate)

US President Donald Trump’s administration wants to build a rules-based and democracy-led order in the Indo-Pacific, but seems to have no idea how. If it doesn’t find the answer soon, and imbue its Asia policy with strategic heft, constraining Chinese aggression will only become more difficult.

Brahma Chellaney, Professor of Strategic Studies at the New Delhi-based Center for Policy Research and Fellow at the Robert Bosch Academy in Berlin, is the author of nine books, including Asian JuggernautWater: Asia’s New Battleground, and <em=” “=”” target=”_blank”><em=”>Water, Peace, and War: Confronting the Global Water Crisis.

In evidenza

When Markets and Mobility Collide (Project-Syndicate)

Many people, including economists, wonder why a scheduled 3% fare increase on the Santiago metro triggered mass protests that paralyzed the entire country. In fact, the popular response should come as no surprise, and understanding it is crucial to devising better policy solutions.

Ricardo Hausmann, a former minister of planning of Venezuela and former Chief Economist at the Inter-American Development Bank, is a professor at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government and Director of the Harvard Growth Lab.

In evidenza

The Impeachment Blues (Project-Syndicate)

Most American presidents have honored their constitutional duty to “take care that the laws be faithfully executed.” Donald Trump, however, views his role differently, and for that reason is in the greatest trouble of his presidency so far.

Elizabeth Drew is a Washington-based journalist and the author, most recently, of Washington Journal: Reporting Watergate and Richard Nixon’s Downfall.

In evidenza

Europe on a Geopolitical Fault Line (Project-Syndicate)

China has begun to build a parallel international order, centered on itself. If the European Union aids in its construction – even just by positioning itself on the fault line between China and the United States – it risks toppling key pillars of its own edifice and, eventually, collapsing altogether.

Ana Palacio is former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Spain and former Senior Vice President and General Counsel of the World Bank Group. She is a visiting lecturer at Georgetown University.

In evidenza

Tracking the global mindset of uncertainty (SIEPR)

Like a usual suspect, uncertainty is accused over and over again as an accomplice dragging down the economy in the past few months. The Economist recently said it was like a poison, and The Wall Street Journal said “uncertainty is the monster that lives under the bed of every CEO.” Federal Reserve officials invoked it, too, as they decided to cut interest rates, inserting a stent of sorts to stabilize the economy.

In evidenza

China is waking up to data protection and privacy. Here’s why that matters (WEF)

In September 2019, China had its own version of the FaceApp privacy storm. Using artificial intelligence and machine-learning techniques, the Zao app allowed users to swap faces with celebrities in movies or TV shows. It went viral as a tool for creating deepfakes, but concerns soon arose as people noticed that Zao’s user agreement gave the app the global rights to use any image or video created on the platform for free.

 – Adjunct Professor, New York University

In evidenza

The Citizens’ Climate Convention: an encouraging start (IDDRI)

he Citizen’s Climate Convention is an unprecedented exercise. As it started a month ago, it is too early to take stock, but the first two sessions show two significant trends. On the one hand, the strong involvement of the citizens selected at random, who express their willingness to take up the challenge and come up with proposals. On the other hand, the unprecedented availability of open access resources on both the understanding of the issues and the solutions to meet the climate challenge. Two necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for the success of the Convention.

In evidenza

Is Economic Winter Coming? (Project-Syndicate)

Now that the old rules governing macroeconomic cycles no longer seem to apply, it remains to be seen what might cause the next recession in the United States. But if recent history is our guide, the biggest threat stems not from the US Federal Reserve or any one sector of the economy, but rather from the White House.

Raghuram G. Rajan, former Governor of the Reserve Bank of India, is Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business and the author, most recently, of The Third Pillar: How Markets and the State Leave the Community Behind.

In evidenza

Why US Inequality Is Higher Than Europe’s (Project-Syndicate)

Since 1980, income inequality has exploded in the United States, while remaining much less extreme in Europe. Yet each side of the Atlantic could learn from the other in tackling the problem, which is as much about predistribution policies as it is about redistribution.

Thomas Blanchet is Statistical Tools and Methods Coordinator at the World Inequality Lab – Lucas Chancel, Co-Director of the World Inequality Lab, is a lecturer at Sciences Po and a research fellow at the Institute for Sustainable Development and International Relations – Amory Gethin is a research fellow at the World Inequality Lab


In evidenza

What kind of regional connectivity does South Asia aspire to? (World Bank blogs)

I recently helped my seven-year-old son prepare a show-and-tell talk for school about our family’s summer vacation.


In evidenza

How does the World Bank design a quick yet sustainable disaster recovery solution? (World Bank blogs)

On March 15, Cyclone Idai hit Zimbabwe and we were faced with a twofold challenge. First, how would we design a disaster recovery solution that could deliver both quick yet sustainable results to put the cyclone affected people back on the path of resilient and sustainable recovery? And secondly, how would we efficiently and effectively implement this in a fragile country where the Government cannot receive direct funding from us?



In evidenza

How good are pre-analysis plans in practice? and lessons for writing/reviewing your next one (World Bank blogs)

The use of pre-analysis plans (PAPs) has grown rapidly over the past five or so years, with this usage intended to enhance the transparency and credibility of research. In a new working paper, George Ofosu and Daniel Posner look at a large sample of these plans to examine the extent to which their actual use in practice matches up with these goals. This is a useful exercise, both for understanding where progress is made and where improvements are still possible, as well as for helping us to understand where there are still outstanding issues to deal with.


In evidenza

Towards better public financial management for health (World Bank blogs)

The U.S. public financial management (PFM) system evolved out of various controversies. One of these controversies was a dispute between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson about how much discretion the executive branch of the U.S. government should exercise over the spending of public funds. Jefferson’s victory enabled Congress to assert its authority by making appropriations so highly specific as to hinder executive action. Had Hamilton won, the Executive would have attained extraordinary budgetary powers – an arrangement similar to that in some of our client countries today.



In evidenza

SecDef: Expect ‘Trimming, Reducing, Some Eliminations’ in 2021 Budget (Defense One)

Esper touts “good progress” in high-level review intended to cut fat and find funds for projects to counter China and Russia.


In evidenza

Macron’s ‘NATO Brain Death’ Quote Shows Why the US Has Always Outplayed France (Defense One)

Like Charles de Gaulle, the French president would unify Europe under France’s conception, with Germany footing the bill


In evidenza

Resolving the missing deflation and inflation puzzles (VOX)

The alleged breakdown of the Phillips curve has left monetary policy researchers and central bankers wondering if we need to develop completely new models for price and wage determination. This column argues that a relatively small alteration of the standard New Keynesian model, combined with using the nonlinear instead of the linearised solution, is sufficient to resolve the two puzzles – the ‘missing deflation’ during the recession and the ‘missing inflation’ during the recovery – underlying the supposed breakdown.

Jesper Lindé, Mathias Trabandt

In evidenza

The political colour of fiscal responsibility: Trump’s fiscal policy is in the wake of Republican tradition (VOX)

The growth of the US national debt during the Trump presidency is particularly remarkable given its overlap with a period of economic expansion. But in this regard if few others, the Trump administration is no outlier. This column challenges the claim that Republicans adhere to fiscal conservatism in debt policy. Instead, it shows that Republican administrations since WWII have been more prone to expand government debt than their Democratic counterparts. And broadly speaking, the same pattern emerges in a panel of OECD countries.

Fabrizio Zilibotti, Andreas Müller, Kjetil Storesletten

In evidenza

The economics of neutrality in World War II (VOX)

Neutrality has long been viewed as impartiality in war. This column, part of the Vox debate on World War II, asserts that neutral states in the war were realist in approaching their defence to ensure their survival. Neutrals such as Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland maintained independence by offering economic concessions to the belligerents to make up for their relative military weakness. Economic concessions took the form of merchandise trade, services, labour, and capital flows. Depending on their position and the changing fortunes of war, neutral countries could also extract concessions from the belligerents, if their situation permitted.

Eric Golson

In evidenza

How the iPhone widens the US trade deficit with China: The case of the iPhone X (VOX)

In order to pursue ‘fair trade’, the Trump administration has imposed a punitive 25% tariff on $250 billion’s worth of Chinese goods. However, conventional trade statistics greatly exaggerate the US trade deficit with China. This column uses the iPhone as an example to demonstrate how the trade deficit is inflated and why value-added should be used to assess the bilateral trade balance. If multinational enterprises, including Apple, shift part of their value chains out of China, China may no longer play a central role in global value chains targeting the US market. Depreciation of the yuan will be insufficient to counter the effect.

Yuqing Xing

In evidenza

Will China Confront a Revolution of Rising Expectations? (Project-Syndicate)

Amid much discussion of the challenges facing the Chinese economy, the line-up of usual suspects typically excludes the most worrying scenario of all: popular unrest. While skeptics would contend that widespread protest against the regime and its policies is unlikely, events elsewhere suggest that China is not immune.

Barry Eichengreen is Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley, and a former senior policy adviser at the International Monetary Fund. His latest book is The Populist Temptation: Economic Grievance and Political Reaction in the Modern Era.

In evidenza

Power to the People? (Project-Syndicate)

From Beirut to Hong Kong to Santiago, governments are eager to bring an end to mass demonstrations. But, in the absence of greater institutional responsiveness to popular grievances and demands, people are unlikely to stay home.

Aryeh Neier, President Emeritus of the Open Society Foundations and a founder of Human Rights Watch, is author of The International Human Rights Movement: A History.

In evidenza

New Hope for Indian Unity (Project-Syndicate)

At a time when India’s social fabric has been placed under unprecedented stress, Indians greeted the Supreme Court’s ruling on a long-running inter-religious dispute with almost universal relief. The Court’s verdict thus should be viewed as the start of a process of national healing.

Shashi Tharoor, a former UN under-secretary-general and former Indian Minister of State for External Affairs and Minister of State for Human Resource Development, is an MP for the Indian National Congress. He is the author of Pax Indica: India and the World of the 21st Century.

In evidenza

4 ways sporting events are becoming more sustainable (WEF)

When it comes to fighting climate change, large sporting events have struggled to win any prizes. Fans travelling to just one European Cup match this year are estimated to have generated nearly 5,600 tonnes of CO2.

 – Senior Writer, Formative Content

In evidenza

4 innovative renewable energy projects powering Europe’s green future (WEF)

Between 2007 and 2017, the volume of renewable energy produced in the European Union’s 28 member states rose by 64%.

 – Senior Writer, Formative Content

In evidenza

The majority of people at risk from sea level rise live in just 8 countries – and they’re all in Asia (WEF)

Before today, sea level rise and flooding were already forecast to wreak havoc for millions now and in the coming decades. Now, the story looks much worse – three times worse, to be precise. According to new research, hundreds of millions more people are already at risk from climate breakdown-caused coastal flooding and sea level rise than previously thought. And by the end of the century, large swathes of the coastal land we live on today could be unihabitable – even with immediate and deep emissions cuts.

 – Research Fellow, Solent University

In evidenza

How tech can help businesses balance profit and purpose (WEF)

With the US administration turning its back on the Paris Climate Agreement, demands for corporate climate leadership are mounting. At a time when executives should be filling the leadership gap, too many CEOs continue to be trapped by short-term, profit-only thinking.

 – President, Environmental Defense Fund

In evidenza

Australia’s unpredictable weather is causing drought. This is how it’s linked to climate change (WEF)

The issue of whether Australia’s current drought is caused by climate change has been seized on by some media commentators, with debate raging over a remark from eminent scientist Andy Pitman that “there is no link between climate change and drought”. Professor Pitman has since qualified, he meant to say “there is no direct link between climate change and drought”.

In evidenza

Sydney is threatened for the first time as ‘catastrophic’ bush fires rage (WEF)

Authorities declared a state of emergency across a broad swath of Australia’s east coast on Monday, urging residents in high risk areas to evacuate ahead of looming “catastrophic” fire conditions.

In evidenza

Lebanese and Iraqi Protesters Transcend Sectarianism (BESA Center)

The protests in Lebanon have evolved into more than a fight against a failed and corrupt government. They constitute a rare demand for political and social structures that emphasize national rather than ethnic or sectarian religious identities in a world in which civilizational leaders who advocate some form of racial, ethnic, or religious supremacy govern the world’s major as well as key regional powers.


In evidenza

Israel Agrees to Monitor Foreign Investment (BESA Center)

Jerusalem and Beijing have cultivated a flourishing economic relationship in recent years, but that bond is limited by the tension it has engendered with a Washington wary of China’s growing footprint in Israeli strategic assets. In an effort to mitigate this tension, Israel’s security cabinet has decided to establish a mechanism to monitor foreign investment.


In evidenza

China in the Middle East: From Observer to Security Player (BESA Center)

There is much debate both within and without China over whether or not its economic interests in the region will force it to play a more active security/military role in the Middle East. In fact, recent political and economic trends in the region indicate that a shift in China’s approach to the Middle East along these lines has already started.


In evidenza

Overcoming contractual incompleteness: The role of guiding principles (VOX)

Contracts for complex outsourcing and supply-chain deals are challenging to write and vulnerable to bad behaviour. Rather than recommend that each party hire an army of sophisticated lawyers to anticipate and litigate the eventualities of an incomplete contract, this column explores a different approach. In a ‘Vested’ contract, each party agrees to shared goals, guiding principles, and structured communication to fall back on when conflicts arise. Used by a growing number of organisations worldwide, Vested contracts build trust and encourage parties to respect one another’s interests, facilitating communication and problem-solving.

David Frydlinger, Oliver Hart

In evidenza

The return to protectionism (VOX)

The 2018 tariff hikes reversed a decades-long push by the US for lower global trade barriers around the world. This column examines the impact of the resulting trade war on the US economy. It estimates a $51 billion annual loss to US consumers and firms from higher import prices, with an aggregate annual loss of $7.2 billion when producer gains and tariff revenues are factored in. It also argues that US tariffs protected politically competitive counties, whereas retaliations by other nations targeted strongly Republican counties.

Pablo Fajgelbaum, Pinelopi Goldberg, Patrick Kennedy, Amit Khandelwal

In evidenza

Berlino, quei nodi irrisolti per l’Europa. ​A trent’anni dalla caduta del muro (L’Osservatore Romano)

Alla fine di ottobre 1989, in un momento caratterizzato da difformi trasformazioni politiche nella Comunità europea e nell’Europa sovietica, tutti i capi dei gruppi politici presenti nel Parlamento italiano, convinti che il momento storico meritasse una comune analisi e proposta che andasse ben oltre i pur nobili interessi di parte, votarono una mozione che impegnava il Governo a far iscrivere al Consiglio europeo che si sarebbe tenuto l’8 e il 9 dicembre l’esame sull’attuazione e sul funzionamento dell’atto unico europeo, in relazione alle riforme istituzionali necessarie.

Vincenzo Scotti


In evidenza

Are Randomized Poverty-Alleviation Experiments Ethical? (Project-Syndicate)

When this year’s Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to three pioneers in using randomized controlled trials to fight poverty in developing countries, the choice revived questions about the ethics of the method. Three questions, in particular, need to be addressed.

Peter Singer is Professor of Bioethics at Princeton University, Laureate Professor in the School of Historical and Philosophical Studies at the University of Melbourne, and founder of the non-profit organization The Life You Can Save. His books include Animal LiberationPractical EthicsThe Ethics of What We Eat (with Jim Mason), Rethinking Life and DeathThe Point of View of the Universe, co-authored with Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek, The Most Good You Can DoFamine, Affluence, and MoralityOne World NowEthics in the Real World, and Utilitarianism: A Very Short Introduction, also with Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek. In 2013, he was named the world’s third “most influential contemporary thinker” by the Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute.

Arthur Baker is a research associate at the Center for Global Development.

Johannes Haushofer is a professor of Psychology and Public Affairs at Princeton University.

In evidenza

Emmanuel Macron’s Balkan Betrayal (Project-Syndicate)

French President Emmanuel Macron’s decision to block Albania and North Macedonia’s EU-membership bids has brought a symbolic end to the post-1989 era. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, both European and US leaders had recognized that an orderly expansion of the European project is key to European peace and prosperity.

Christopher R. Hill, former US Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia, was US Ambassador to Iraq, South Korea, Macedonia, and Poland, a US special envoy for Kosovo, a negotiator of the Dayton Peace Accords, and the chief US negotiator with North Korea from 2005-2009. He is Chief Adviser to the Chancellor for Global Engagement and Professor of the Practice in Diplomacy at the University of Denver, and the author of Outpost.

In evidenza

Using Digital Technology to Narrow the Opportunity Gap (Project-Syndicate)

Digital technology was not invented to tackle inequality, and there is even a risk that it could widen existing economic and social disparities. But, as the case of China illustrates, new platforms also offer many possible ways to narrow the opportunity gap.

Shang-Jin Wei, a former chief economist at the Asian Development Bank, is Professor of Finance and Economics at Columbia Business School and Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs.

In evidenza

The New Anti-Capitalism (Project-Syndicate)

It should not be surprising that our era of rapid technological change has coincided with renewed skepticism of capitalism across Western countries. Yet this time is different, not least because of the rise of winner-take-all markets and a shift in the geographic center of the global economy.

Harold James is Professor of History and International Affairs at Princeton University and a senior fellow at the Center for International Governance Innovation. A specialist on German economic history and on globalization, he is a co-author of the new book The Euro and The Battle of Ideas, and the author of The Creation and Destruction of Value: The Globalization CycleKrupp: A History of the Legendary German Firm, and Making the European Monetary Union.

In evidenza

U.S. Maximum Pressure Meets Iranian Maximum Pressure (International Crisis Group)

Eighteen months after Washington quit the 2015 Iran nuclear agreement, Tehran is proceeding with staggered steps away from its own compliance. The deal is unravelling against the backdrop of high regional tensions. A de-escalation along the lines developed by France provides an off-ramp.

In evidenza

Déjà Vu: Preventing Another Collapse in South Sudan (International Crisis Group)

South Sudan’s conflict parties are supposed to form a unity government by 12 November. But key disputes between them remain unresolved. External actors should push the adversaries to make progress on these matters before entering any power-sharing arrangement – lest war erupt once more.

In evidenza

Three Troubling Trends at the UN Security Council (International Crisis Group)

China and the West are increasingly at loggerheads in Turtle Bay. So are European capitals and Washington. The handling of African crises is contentious as well. Amid these frictions, it is the job of UN diplomats to keep channels for quiet communication up and running.

Richard Gowan

In evidenza



This year marks the 70th anniversary of NATO, which its 29 members will commemorate on 3 and 4 December in London. To be clear: this will not be a regular NATO ‘Summit’. The gathering has a less formal status and will not be concluded with a common statement on how to move forward. Rumour has it that changing the name to a NATO’s ‘Leaders Meeting’ was inspired by President Trump’s capricious behaviour during past summits. This development is indicative of a larger problem: disunity within the Alliance. NATO is the most important security organisation of our time, but is it aware of its most pressing threat?

In evidenza


Afghanistan, Syria, Libya and Mali have been hotbeds of conflict for years on end. In each of these conflicts, the West is involved, either directly or indirectly by means of NATO or UN missions. In this Clingendael Spectator series on Western interventions, the current status and the future of the conflicts will be analysed. Second stop: Syria, where the Turkish invasion that started on 9 October is only the latest illustration of the fact that the Syrian civil war has featured one foreign intervention after another. This article provides an assessment of the tactical military success and the broader strategic effects of eight sets of intervention.

In evidenza

Polar Power USA: Full Steam Ahead into the Arctic (SWP)

The Arctic’s melting ice not only acts as an early warning system for the world’s climate, but also makes this region an indicator of change for international security policy. The Trump administration sees the Arctic primarily as an arena of competi­tion between great powers. This could both benefit and harm the region. A greater engagement on the part of the USA would be welcome, but if it comes with an at­tempt to exclude other states, this would damage the high level of cooperation that has held sway in the Arctic thus far. US Arctic policy has become a variable that is dependent on great-power rivalry. The resulting polarisation of relations makes it difficult to find the necessary common solutions for coping with the changes caused by global warming.

Michael Paul

In evidenza

From start-up to scale: This is how governments can accelerate innovation and build inclusive economies (WEF)

Innovation is at the heart of economic growth and job creation. It can transform productivity and efficiency and address many of the world’s longstanding and emerging challenges, such as climate change, health, education and social inclusiveness.

In evidenza

The 5 mistakes we’re making in the fight against global energy poverty (WEF)

Energy consumption, in all its many forms, enables everything from how we live, eat and move, to how we work and communicate. Greater energy use is also needed to end poverty and boost incomes around the world. That’s why the UN SDG7 to reach “access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all” by 2030 is a wonderful vision.

In evidenza

Britain’s Brexit election is its most volatile in memory – and 3 other superlatives about the snap poll (WEF)

Britain’s minority Conservative government has given up trying to get its Brexit deal through parliament and has called a snap election for 12 December. Here’s why it will be an election like no other.

In evidenza

Transforming Infrastructure: Frameworks for Bringing the Fourth Industrial Revolution to Infrastructure (WEF)

The technological advances of the Fourth Industrial Revolution have fundamentally altered society in ways both seen and unseen. This digital transformation has changed how people live and work, and everything in between. One area of daily life, however, seems to be largely missing out on this revolution: infrastructure. It remains one of the least digitally transformed sectors of the economy. While individual examples of highly advanced infrastructure systems exist, the sector at large lags behind others in innovation, a fact made all the more apparent by infrastructure’s ubiquity. When the World Economic Forum Global Future Council on Infrastructure gathered for its annual meeting in Dubai in November 2018, it sought to understand why.

In evidenza

Policy Pathways for the New Economy (WEF)

Unfolding technological developments pose a significant challenge in terms of the depth of economic and social transformation needed for their benefits to be fully realized and equitably distributed. Questions are emerging regarding the adequacy of our current economic policies and practices, the social contract between citizens, businesses and governments and the metrics used to assess socio-economic progress.


In evidenza

Trump Isn’t a Climate Denier. He’s Worse (Defense One)

Leaving the Paris Agreement and other efforts to slow the globe’s transition from fossil fuels will ultimately undermine U.S. power.


In evidenza

India Says No to Trade Bloc. Will It Ever Say Yes to Tough Reforms? (CFR)

It shouldn’t really surprise that in the end, after seven long years of deliberation, India decided against joining the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).

 by Alyssa Ayres, Author

In evidenza

Rethinking Productivity (Project-Syndicate)

Today, about four out of every five dollars spent in the OECD economies purchases services or intangible goods. This “dematerialization” of economies demands a more nuanced understanding of what drives productivity.

Diane Coyle is Professor of Public Policy at the University of Cambridge.

In evidenza

China Needs Economic Stimulus (Project-Syndicate)

China’s GDP growth has been slowing steadily since the first quarter of 2010, and the prospect of slower growth has gained widespread acceptance, both within and outside China. But the downward trend is riskier than many observers seem to realize.

Yu Yongding, a former president of the China Society of World Economics and director of the Institute of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, served on the Monetary Policy Committee of the People’s Bank of China from 2004 to 2006.

In evidenza

Are the Climate Kids Right? (Project-Syndicate)

The young activists leading school strikes and mass protests around the world have been highly effective in sounding the alarm about climate change. But if the movement is going to be anything more than a flash in the pan, it must adopt realistic policy objectives that the broader public can support.

Daron Acemoglu, Professor of Economics at MIT, is co-author (with James A. Robinson) of Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty and The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty.

In evidenza

Revisiting the End of the Cold War (Project-Syndicate)

Thirty years ago this week, the world watched in awe as thousands brought down the Berlin Wall, marking the beginning of the end of the Cold War. Today, however, democracy is in crisis, and authoritarianism is once again on the rise – including in countries that were once behind the Iron Curtain.

John Lewis Gaddis is the Robert A. Lovett Professor of History at Yale and the author of several books, including, The Cold War: A New History.

Elmira Bayrasli is the co-founder and CEO of Foreign Policy Interrupted and the author of From The Other Side of The World: Extraordinary Entrepreneurs, Unlikely Places.
In evidenza

Palestinian Islamic Jihad Agitates for Violence in the Gaza Strip (BESA Center)

Israel seeks to prevent a powder keg from detonating on the southern border as it prioritizes the more threatening front up north.


In evidenza

The Upheaval in Syria Opens the Door for Iranian Attack (BESA Center)

The latest upheaval in northeastern Syria caused by Turkey’s invasion, and the division of the Syrian plunder among Turkey, the Assad regime, and Russia, presents Iran with new avenues for building up attack capabilities and further destabilizing the region.


In evidenza

A conversation with Somali Finance Minister Abdirahman Duale Beileh on economic adjustment in fragile African states (Brookings)

A conversation with Somali Finance Minister Abdirahman Duale Beileh on economic adjustment in fragile African states

Payce Madden

In evidenza

Taking the pulse of digital government in China (World Bank blogs)

Digital government initiatives at the national and sub-national levels in China are evolving at a rapid pace. With the first generation of basic digitization of government operations now complete, Chinese authorities are looking at how leading-edge technologies and big data can further improve the performance of government, both in terms of data-driven decision making and public services.



In evidenza

The policy footprint of RCTs (World Bak blogs)

Like many readers of this blog, I was over the moon about this year’s Nobel Prize in Economics, awarded to Abhijit Banerjee, Esther Duflo, and Michael Kremer “for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty.” As David wrote the day of the announcement, randomized control trials (RCTs) have fundamentally changed the way we do research. The research implemented and inspired by the winners, as some journalists have noted (NPR and NYTimes), has also changed our understanding of the constraints that poor people face around the world.


In evidenza

It’s getting easier to do business in Africa—but there’s room to do more (World Bank blogs)

Togo, a small country in West Africa known for its glimmering phosphate reserves and sandy beaches, just earned its place among the world’s top 10 reformers on the World Bank Group’s Doing Business 2020 report.



In evidenza

Rosie the Robot: Social accountability one tweet at a time (World Bank blogs)

Every month in Brazil, the government team in charge of processing reimbursement expenses incurred by congresspeople receives more than 20,000 claims. This is a manually intensive process that is prone to error and susceptible to corruption. Under Brazilian law, this information is available to the public, making it possible to check the accuracy of this data with further scrutiny. But it’s hard to sift through so many transactions. Fortunately, Rosie, a robot built to analyze the expenses of the country’s congress members, is helping out.



In evidenza

New resources for sovereign ESG data and investors (World Bank blogs)

Growing concerns over climate change and other environment and social issues are having a big impact on how today’s investors think about their investment strategies. According to a recent global survey by FTSE Russell, 53% of asset managers are currently implementing or evaluating ESG considerations in their investment strategies. A number of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) frameworks have emerged to help guide investment strategies for corporate and sovereign bonds, as well as equities.


In evidenza

The real costs of illegal logging, fishing and wildlife trade: $1 trillion–$2 trillion per year (World Bank blogs)

Illegal logging, fishing and wildlife trade rob the world of precious natural resources – and ultimately of development benefits and livelihoods.  The statistics are grim: an elephant is poached for its tusks about every 30 minutes, an African rhino for its horn every 8 hours, one in five fish is caught illegally, and in certain countries, particularly in Africa and South America, 50% to 90% of timber is harvested and traded illegally.  As much as 35% of the value of all illegal trade is estimated to come from rosewood.


In evidenza

Introducing a new tool to transform mobility (World Bank blogs)

Welcome to SuM4All in 60 Seconds: A Vlog Toward Sustainable Mobility. In this video blog series, I will be speaking with influencers, experts, country leaders, cities, companies, and civil society representatives from all over the world to discuss the importance of sustainable transport and the future of mobility.



In evidenza

Towards a new generation of irrigation investments (World Bank blogs)

Significant and responsible public and private investments in irrigation are vital for delivering on the 2030 Agenda  – from reducing poverty, improving food and nutrition security and boosting agricultural production, to strengthening rural livelihoods and managing land and water resources sustainably.


In evidenza

IDA is a vital development partner now more than ever (World Bank blogs)

It is undeniable that progress has been made in reducing extreme poverty over the last quarter century—from 36 percent of the world population in 1990 to an estimated 8.6 percent in 2018—and that living standards for hundreds of millions of people have improved over that time.



In evidenza

Knowledge is power: Mobile internet, government confidence, and populism (VOX)

Information and communication technology has no doubt had a positive economic impact globally, but its political bearing is less clear. This column shows that the proliferation of mobile technology reduces citizens’ confidence in their current governments, especially in places where news broadcasting is censored but the internet is not. Furthermore, by reducing the cost of reaching voters, the internet has also led to increased support for both left-wing and right-wing populist movements.

Sergei Guriev, Nikita Melnikov, Ekaterina Zhuravskaya

In evidenza

Asymmetric speed bumps: A market design response to high-frequency trading (VOX)

Financial markets process orders faster than ever before. Although faster speeds are associated with smaller spreads, they may also lead to less informative prices. This column captures this trade-off within a theoretical model of high-frequency trading in modern financial markets. It then uses the model to evaluate some potential market design responses to high-frequency trading that are currently in debate. In particular, it shows that asymmetric speed bumps improve markets by eliminating an inefficient form of high-frequency trading.

Assistant Professor of Finance, University of British Columbia

Assistant Professor of Managerial Economics & Decision Sciences, Northwestern University

In evidenza

Exorcising phantom FDI: A probabilistic approach to identifying ultimate investors (VOX)

A large and growing proportion of global investment flows is channelled through conduit jurisdictions and offshore financial centres, making it difficult to track the real origin and ownership of FDI. This column illustrates an innovative approach to estimating FDI positions by ultimate investors and discuss some implications in key policy areas such as trade and investment, development, and international taxation.

Bruno Casella

In evidenza

Risk-mitigating technologies (VOX)

Higher risk perception may suppress demand for a product class and chill R&D investment, or increase the incentive to innovate risk-mitigating technologies. The column uses media coverage of accidents involving CT scanners to investigate the impact on firm innovation. Higher public risk perception increased patent applications and the rate of new product innovation, even without changes in liability or regulation.

Alberto Galasso, Hong Luo

In evidenza

U.S.-Turkey Relations: The Shifting Nature of Two NATO Allies (CFR)

Panelists discuss Turkey’s domestic politics, its recent actions in northern Syria, and the shifting nature of U.S.-Turkish relations in the three years since the attempted July 2016 coup.


Adjunct Senior Fellow for Middle East Studies, Council on Foreign Relations; Bernard L. and Bertha F. Cohen  Chair in International Relations, Lehigh University; @hbarkey

Naz Durakoglu

Senior Policy Advisor, Office of Senator Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH); Director, NATO Observer Group, U.S. Senate

Gönül Tol

Founding Director, Turkey Program, Middle East Institute

Ellen Laipson

Director, International Security Program, George Mason University

In evidenza

A Conversation With Minister Olaf Scholz of Germany (CFR)

German Finance Minister Olaf Scholz discusses fighting climate change in multilateral settings, European economic developments, and German economic policy.

Olaf Scholz

Federal Minister of Finance, Federal Republic of Germany

Thad W. Allen

Senior Executive Advisor, Booz Allen Hamilton Inc.; Member, Board of Directors, Council on Foreign Relations

In evidenza

How to Tame Big Tech (Project-Syndicate)

The US presidential candidates Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren are right to call for stronger action to rein in powerful tech companies like Amazon and Facebook. But a successful strategy will have to look beyond antitrust laws.

Kaushik Basu, former Chief Economist of the World Bank and former Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India, is Professor of Economics at Cornell University and Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution.

In evidenza

The Lost Promise of 1989 (Project-Syndicate)

As is often the case, deep historical shifts tend to show up first in popular culture, and only then in formal politics. That is why we should look at the complex legacy of 1989 not only in the formal celebrations being held in Berlin, but also in the stands of a soccer stadium in Sofia.

Mark Leonard is Director of the European Council on Foreign Relations.