Mapping European leverage in the MENA region: Egypt (Brookings)

Since the removal of Hosni Mubarak as Egypt’s president in 2011, Europe’s objectives and influence in the country have undergone a series of fluctuations. Under Mubarak, Egypt had a fairly straightforward relationship with Europe. This relationship was grounded in the realpolitik of authoritarian stability – which European countries relied on to further their economic and security interests across the Middle East and north Africa – and on Mubarak’s friendships with several European leaders.

Adel Abdel Ghafar

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