In Mozambique, fisheries are important to the national economy and individual livelihoods. Shallow water shrimp fisheries (SWSF) provide an important source of income for many coastal communities. Yet the sustainability of SWSFs is under threat, due to overfishing, the rapid and uncontrolled expansion of the artisanal fishing subsector, and the use of destructive fishing techniques, coupled with habitat destruction (in particular mangroves) and pollution. This also negatively impacts on the livelihoods of fishing communities and government revenues. Urgent measures are required to halt the depletion. This study analyses current fiscal policies for sustainable and fair fisheries in Mozambique, focusing on small-scale fisheries, particularly shallow water shrimp fisheries. In the SWSF, artisanal fishers are important not only economically but also socially. The working paper includes a series of policy recommendations linked to fiscal reforms to further support these efforts while furthering environmental goals. The recommendations are grouped into two main areas: equitable fiscal reforms, and expenditures and revenues for sustainable resource management.